What is Survey Method? A survey is an investigation of the ideas, attitudes and other responses of a large number of people. Usually, they answer a series of questions by mail, telephone, and interview. Origin The origin of this method is usually credited to Charles Darwin and his cousin Francis Galton, known for his discoveries in anthropology, sensory psychology, and statistics. Survey falls. somewhere between structured interviews and psychological tests.. ‘Survey consists of a series of questions to which individuals are asked .to respond. The purpose of this interview is to determine general opinions, attitudes or feelings on a specific issue. Surveys represent important research method. In survey research people chosen to represent some larger. The population is asked a series of questions about their behaviour, thought, and attitudes. Survey research is a useful technique. Psychologists, sociologists, political scientists, market researchers, magazine editors and others use surveys to gain information about people’s thoughts and feelings. The result of a survey is often used to describe people’s opinions, attitudes and preferences. Survey results are also used to make predictions about people’s. behaviour. For example, the result of pre-election poll describes voters preferences. Market survey can predict about consumer behaviour etc.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SURVEY
Survey research studies large and small populations by selecting and studying samples chosen from the populations to discover the relative incidence, distributions and inter relations of sociological and psychological variables. It involves, selecting a sample and using a predetermined set Of questions. The researcher is interested in the accurate assessment of the characteristics of whole population. Though they differ in how they are used, all surveys share some common characteristics that make properly conducted surveys an excellent method for describing people’s attitudes and opinions. Survey analysis focuses on folks, the important facts of individuals and their beliefs, opinions’ attitudes, motivations and behavior. Two forms of style square measure employed in survey i.e. cross-sectional style and longitudinal one. The cross-sectional design is one of the most commonly used techniques. In a cross sectional design, one or more samples are drawn from the population at one time. Its focus is description, It describes the characteristics of a population at a particular point in time. In a longitudinal design the same respondents are surveyed overtime in order to examine changes in individual respondents. The longitudinal design has two important advantages. First’ the investigator can determine the direction and second the extent of change for individual respondents. But the major problem with this design is that it can be difficult to obtain a sample of respondents who will agree to participate in longitudinal study, as it means a long term commitment.
Steps in Survey Method
1.Formulation of Problem
2.Population and Sampling
3.Tools of Survey
To select accurate topic for survey is basically very important. After the selection of topic or formulation of problem statement, the purpose of survey must be explained. Purpose of survey indicates what is the objective of research? What researcher will do after collecting the information? If the topic is related to social issues such as-poverty, drug addiction, unemployment, their causes, effect or remedies can be discussed and suggestions may be formulated for higher and concerned authorities. It may indicate that how people can get rid of those problems and, at least, they become aware how to control or combat those issues.
Hypothesis When problem statement is formulated, then solution of problem is proposed which is named as hypothesis. Hypothesis is considered as proposed solution of the problem. When researcher collects information about his topic or target problem, he may formulate many hypotheses. To explain the hypothesis, operational definitions of variables, consisting of hypothesis, are made. In some studies hypothesis can be the problem statement. After defining the topic and hypothesis, it becomes clear where to take the sample.