What is Statistical ? The word statistics is derived from Latin word status and Italian word statistic, while in 1749, Gottfried Achen wall used the German word Statistic, All these words stand for political State. It is used the word that stands for political knowledge regarding civilization, industry, and policies of the government. so let’s discuss what the basic meaning of statistical.
MEANING OF STATISTICAL
This word is used to give the following three meanings.
Firstly, it is used in the plural sense to refer to numerical facts in any field of study. These facts are collected in a systematic manner with a definite purpose in view. Often we read about statistics of death and births, price statistics, agricultural statistics, etc. we also use the word data to refer to statistics in this sense. Statistics are aggregates of facts which are expressed in numerical form. We use the number in statistics to express units or quantities. Further a single fact, however important, is not statistics.
secondly, the word statistics is used in the singular sense. In this sense, it refers to the science comprising methods which are used in the collection, presentation, analysis, and interpretation of numerical data. These methods are used when we want to draw conclusions about a given phenomenon from the relevant data. The major area of statistics today is concerned with drawing conclusions about the whole from the sample and testing the reliability of the results drawn from the sample.
Thirdly, the word statistics is used in a technical sense as the plural of the statistic. By statistic, we mean a quantity calculated from few observations taken on a sample basis. For example, if we select at random ten students from a class of fifty students, measure their heights and find the average height; this average is a statistic. So when used as a plural, it refers to the aggregates of numerical facts. The facts expressed qualitatively, do not form a part of it. In the singular sense, it stands for methods which are used in the collection, presentation, analysis, and interpretation of numerical data.
IMPORTANCE OF STATISTICAL
Statistics simplifies complexities. A human mind is unable to Understand large masses of facts. It is difficult to grasp the complex and large number of facts but statistics make it simple that it is easily grasped and understood.
Statistics enables us to study relationship and comparison among different facts. Statistics simplifies comparison of data. The significance of a series of data is better appreciated when compared with another series of the same kind. After the study of the trend of the given data, statistics can help to predict the future trend of the data under the same conditions.
Statistical methods are used to collect reliable data pertaining to different fields of the state. And the collected data is essential for the formulation of social, economic and business policies. Statistics is playing an important role in every field of human activity. Statistical methods are being used in business, banks, insurance companies, agriculture, education and for the preparation of the government budgets. Its application even in the scientific field especially in physics, chemistry, Bio-Chemistry, Genetics, Astronomy, Meteorology, and Economics has proved to be of immense value.
Statistics presents facts in a definite form. Numerical facts give more precise information than facts expressed in general terms. Statistics studies changes in the level of a given phenomenon. Statistics aids forecasting. Statistics studies the trends of given data and enables us to predict the future behavior of the data under given conditions.
Statistics test the laws of other sciences. Statistical data and methods are widely used in almost all the sciences.
DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
Descriptive or deductive statistics deals with the collection of data, its presentation in various forms, such as tables, graphs and diagrams and finding averages and other measures which would describe the data. The purpose of descriptive statistics is to present the information in such a way as can readily help the decision makers. For example, educationists make use of descriptive statistics in presenting their annual results.
Inferential or inductive statistics deals with techniques used analysis of data, making the estimates and drawing conclusi0ns from limited information taken on a sample basis and testing the reliability of the estimates. Application of Statistics in Psychology Statistical methods are used for the study of mind and behavior. And the application has made the Psychological results more solid and reliable. While studying Intelligence quotient, Personality traits, attitude, performance, aptitude and abilities Of the individual, Statistics helps in the development of various tests. Through the application of these tests, individual’s aptitude, abilities, and intelligence are evaluated required for various jobs and assignments. comparative study Of the performance of the employees and workers can be highlighted through the use of graphs, charts, and tables. Results obtained from Psychologist research are tabulated and then by the use of Statistical methods’ average and the central tendency is obtained. It is the use of statistics that holds an important position for analyzing the experimental data and drawing conclusions.