What is Statistical Data ? Statistics deals with numerical data and the data are collected from the whole of the Universe is under study. But due to the limitation of resources, the conclusions are drawn about the whole by selecting only a sample from the whole. In Psychology, the data are collected from different studies, survey reports, intelligence tests, personality tests, Performance tests, and experiments. let’s discuss in detail various types of Statistical data .
TYPES OF STATISTICAL DATA
The numerical facts acquired from any research and study carried out by some individual or organizations are classified as primary and secondary.
PRIMARY DATA The originally collected information by some individual and organization for the certain purpose will form the primary data. For example, we have 20 students in a class having Intelligence quotient as 115, 109, 105, 120, 113, 110, 115, 107, 117, 119, 108, 113, 118, 112, 106, 115, 112, 116, 116, and 120 respectively, are not statistically arranged and developed will make a primary data.
SECONDARY DATA The information or data, when used by the organization other than the original one, will be known as secondary data. For example, the above-referred data when used by some other organization will be considered secondary data. The data are arranged either in an Ascending order or Descending order.
ASCENDING ORDER While arranging the data in an ascending order the smallest digit is placed in the beginning and the series goes on till the biggest digit is put in the end. It is just like the roll call. The teacher ‘Writes the smallest role number in the beginning while the biggest. role number appear in the end. For example, the role numbers of the students studying psychology will be 11, 14, 15, 20, 21, 25, 27, 35, and 38.
DESCENDING ORDER In descending Order the biggest digit will appear first and the size of the digit goes on decreasing till the smallest digit is placed in the end. While determining the position of the students in an examination the name of the student securing highest marks will be written at the top. if we want to determine the first ten positions in Psychology, it will be as 85, 80, 78, 67, 65, 63, 63, 60, and 58.
Classification or Tabulation of Data Classification; It is the process Of arranging data into categories or groups according to common characteristics present in the data. Once the data is classified it is easy to understand. When we represent our results in the graphic form actually we are using the statistical method. In this method, different techniques can easily be used according to the requirement of our study. We can apply measures of central tendency, measures of variability, analysis of variance, Correlational techniques and many others as well.
LIMITATIONS OF STATISTICS
statistics is only concerned with the numerically measured average facts whereas qualitative aspects are entirely ignored, therefore, its application for individual study is not reliable. It is an aggregate of facts and as such cannot give information about a particular individual or event. For the application of statistical methods, skill is required, a person who is not expert, can spoil the data. Ony a person who has an expert knowledge of statistics can handle statistical data efficiently. During the process of collecting data if a proper care is not exercised then the analysis and results will be misleading, therefore data should be collected in a systematic manner with a definite purpose in mind. Whenever a problem is to be studied, it must be based on the selection of representative and unbiased samples. In short statistics has played an important role in the making of Psychology as objective and an empirical science.
statistics deals with facts which can be numerically measured. statistics does not deal with qualitative aspects such as morality, character, friendship etc. statistics provides only the tools for analysis. It cannot, however, change the nature of causes affecting statistical data.
METHODS OF STUDY IN A GLANCE
Each method has its own limitations which must be kept in mind while selecting them for study.
Experimental method is well suited to research with animals. Natural observation is also widely used for this purpose, obtaining but population survey can’t data, be employed migration with animals. Survey is appropriate for counts etc. The clinical method is impossible with animals. In natural Observation subjects are studied without any intervention. It is more suitable for exploratory work and developing hypotheses, but the lack of manipulation usually means that hypothesis cannot be tested.
In clinical method the investigator examines the subjects in a clinic, service centre, office and other institutions. In this special environment series of interviews, tests and other treatments are administered and a detailed study of the individual is possible.
In survey, investigator intrudes upon the subject’s privacy to some degree, asking question by mail, telephone or personal interview. Surveys provide an efficient and relatively unobtrusive means of gathering large masses of information from many subjects.
Experimental method involves the fullest control and often the most intervention. The subject enters a lab and the experimenter manipulates the environment to a very large degree. The precise control permits the study of cause and effect relations and, therefore, is widely accepted. But the main drawback is that the subjects, when removed from a natural setting, may not behave naturally.