What is Personality? It has been defined in various ways, including one’s outward appearance, one’s role in life, totality Of one’s qualities or attributes, one’s general behaviour pattern and many others. The word comes from a Latin source, “persona” meaning a mask, especially one worn by an actor. In ancient Greek theater particularly, masks defined the characters. Now the actors reflect their characters with layers of makeup.
It has a number of meanings. When we say that someone has a “rich personality” it indicates that individual’s social effectiveness and appeal. When some institution advertises, “Improve your personality” means, it attempts to teach social skills and to enhance the appearance, manners of speaking in order to have favourable reactions from others. Sometimes, we use the word personality to describe an individual’s most striking characteristic. When we refer to someone as having a dominant or sober personality.
Usually, behaviour is referred as a public personality, which means how others observe the individual. Public personality includes expressive features and mannerisms, general disposition, the way one reacts to threatening situations, the attitudes one expresses and much more. Along with public personality, there is also a hidden part of personality can be labelled as private personality. It includes the fantasies, thoughts and experiences that one does not share with others. Special experiences childish or embarrassing wishes, dreams and very special memories one does not share. The thoughts and ideas that come to individual’s mind while waiting for a bus, or during a morning walk. All remain part of private personality. The concept of personality is so broad; its study involves more branches of psychology than any other speciality. Usually, when psychologists talk about personality, they are concerned primarily with individual differences.
DEFINITION OF PERSONALITY
Psychologists do not agree on an exact definition of the term. Hilgard and Atkinson define as the “Characteristics patterns of behaviour, thought and emotion that determine a person’s adjustment to the environment.”
The term characteristic implies some consistency in behaviour that means a tendency to act or think in a certain way in many different situations Behaviour is the result of interaction between personality characteristics and the social and physical conditions of the environment. It is defined as a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions and behaviours that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world.
It is what characterizes an individual. It is unique psychological qualities of an individual that influence a variety of characteristic behaviour pattern (overt & covert) across different Situations.
G. Allport defines “The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment.”
H.Eysenck says that it is more or less stable and enduring organization of a person’s character, temperament, intellect, and physique that determines his unique adjustment to his environment.
R. B. Cattell defines; it is that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation.
According to J. P. Guilford, a person’s unique pattern of traits is called personality. According to McClelland, it is an adequate conceptualization of a person’s behaviour in all its detail.
L. Kolb defines as ” each individual’s characteristically recurring patterns of behaviour.
Personality is that the distinctive pattern of putting up with psychological and activity characteristics by that every person is often compared and contrasted with others. temperament analysis focuses on understanding the consistent patterns of cognition; feeling and behaviour that build folks completely different from one jibe each other. it’s hard to check temperament. to realize a comprehensive understanding of only 1 individual’s temperament, one should fathom biological process experiences, genetic and alternative biological characteristics, sensory activity and alternative information-processing habits and biases and social skills also as typical patterns of emotional expression.
The study of personality can involve all facets of human behaviour and can encompass aspects of developmental, social, experimental, physiological and clinical psychology. Thus, in a sense, any psychologist who deals with human behaviour can be said to be exploring some segment of personality.