What is keyboard ? It is very common that Keyboard is still useful input devices for entering important data into the computer system and therefore it is also known the first peripherals input device. As we know that standard keyboard includes about 100 keys; each key sends a different signal to the CPU. If you have not used a computer keyboard or a typewriter. You will learn quickly that you can use a computer much more effectively if you know that skill of typing, or is the ability to enter text and numbers with skill and accuracy. Certainly, you can use a computer without having good typing skills. Some people claim that when computers can interpret handwriting com and speech with 100 percent accuracy, typing will become unnecessary. But for now and the foreseeable future, keyboarding remains the most common way to enter text and other data into a computer. let us discuss what is keyboard and standard keyboard layout.
THE STANDARD KEYBOARD LAYOUT
Keyboards come in many styles. The various models differ in size, shape, and feel; except for a few special-purpose keys, most keyboards are laid out almost identically. Among IBM-compatible computers, the most common keyboard layout is the IBM Enhanced Keyboard.
THE ALPHANUMERIC KEYS
The alphanumeric keys—the area of the keyboard that looks like a typewriter’s keys—are arranged the same way on almost every keyboard. Sometimes this common arrangement is called the QWERTY (pronounced KWER-tee).layout because the first six keys on the top row of letters are Q, W, E, R, T, and Y.
THE MODIFIER KEYS
The SHIFT, ALT (Alternate), and CTRL (Control) keys are called modifier keys FIG because they modify the input of other keys. In other words, if you hold down a modifier key while pressing another key, then you are changing the second key, Input in some way. For example, if you press the J key, you input a small letter i. But if you hold down the SHIFT key while pressing the J key, you input capital J. Modifier keys are extremely useful because they give all other keys multiple capabilities.
THE NUMERIC KEYPAD
The numeric pad is usually located on the right side of the keyboard. The numeric keypad looks like a calculator keypad. The numeric keypad also features a NUM LOCK key, using. In many Windows-based programs, which forces the numeric keys to input num- CTRL-key combinations provide shortcut bars? When NUM LOCK is deactivated, the numeric keypad’s keys perform cursor-movement combination CTRL+O enables you to open control and other functions.
THE FUNCTION KEYS
The function keys, which are labelled Fl, F2, are usually arranged in a row along the top of the keyboard. They allow you to input commands without typing long strings of characters or navigating menus or dialogue boxes. Each function key’s purpose depends on the program you are using. For example, in most programs, Fl is the help key. When you press it, a special window appears to display information about the program you are using. Most IBM-compatible keyboards have 12 function keys. Many programs use function keys along with modifier keys to give the function keys more capabilities.
THE CURSOR-MOVEMENT KEYS
Most standard keyboards also include a set of cursor-movement s, which let You move around the screen without using a mouse. In many programs and operating systems, a mark on the screen indicates where the characters you type will be entered. This mark, called the cursor or insertion point, appears on the screen as a blinking vertical line, a small box, or some other symbol to show your place in a document or command line.
THE SPECIAL-PURPOSE KEYS
In addition to the five groups of keys described earlier, all IBM-compatible k boards feature six special-purpose keys, each of which performs a unique function.
>> START. This key, which features the Windows logo (and is sometimes called the Windows logo key), opens the Windows Start menu on most computers. Pressing this key is the same as clicking the Start button on the Windows taskbar.
>> SHORTCUT. This key, which features an image of a menu, opens an onscreen shortcut menu in Windows-based application programs.
One of the latest trends in keyboard technology is the addition of Internet and multimedia controls. Microsoft’s Internet Keyboard and Multimedia Keyboard, for example, feature buttons that you can program to perform any number of tasks. For example, you can use the buttons to launch a Web browser, check e-mail, and start your most frequently used programs. Multimedia buttons let you control the computer’s CD-ROM or DVD drive and adjust the speaker volume.