What is Intelligence? We think intelligence is always associated with doing something. We do not look directly at intelligence; we look at intelligent behaviour in some kind of context. That is why we regard someone as highly intelligent in any way, yet’ not at all intelligent in other ways. An individual can be very good at academic work but can be poor in some other area. The word intelligence is based on its Latin roots, inter means “between”. Léger means “to chose, select”, so it means the ability to choose between.
DEFINITION OF INTELLIGENCE
Some experts describe it is the ability to solve problems. Others describe it as the capacity to adapt and learn from experience. Still, others argue that defining intelligence in these cognitive terms ignores other dimensions of intelligence, such as creativity and practical and interpersonal intelligence.
Binet and Simon define, “there is a fundamental faculty in intelligence. This faculty is judgment, which is called good sense, practical sense, initiative, the faculty of adapting one’s self to circumstances. To judge well, to comprehend well, to reason well; all these are essential activities of intelligence”.
David Wechsler believed that “it is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment”.
Heim (1970) argued that, . “it is activity consists in grasping the essentials in a situation and responding appropriately to them”. He describes it is in terms of how it affects the way that people do things.
Terman (1916) described it has the ability to carry on abstract thinking.
Burt (1955) regarded it as a fixed inherited cognitive ability.
According to Spearman, it consisted of a general ability together with a number of different learned attitudes, collectively referred S”. it is our highly prized possession.
Phares (1984) explained, three general classes of skills as abilities underlying intelligence.
- Adapting to a new situation and changing task demands.
- Profiting optimally from experience or training.
- Thinking abstractly using symbols and concepts
Some psychologists view it has a general capacity for comprehension and reasoning that manifests itself in various ways. It is also considered as the capacity to acquire and manipulate or apply knowledge. Another its “intelligence as a person’s capacity for goal-directed behaviour”.
Different experts view that intelligent behaviour reflects a capacity to adapt to learning from experience, solving problems and reasoning clearly. Those behaving intelligently meet challenges and achieve their goals. It is the mental ability which refers to the capacity to perform the higher mental processes of reasoning, remembering, understanding, solving a problem and decision making.
To Sum Up Boring and his students combined different definitions of intelligence and concluded that; intelligence is the ability to carry on abstract thinking necessary for the advancement of society. It is the management of mental processes. It is the ability to learn, to adjust and to inhibit instinct. It is aptitude, the capacity to learn or to profit from further instructions. It is an achievement; the sum of what has been learned, and finally boring added, intelligence is what intelligence test measures. After studying so many definitions, you can form your own concept what the intelligence is. Anyhow, it is general potential to acquire new knowledge and to achieve. But a question which is debatable that, is intelligence one’s single capacity or is it’ combination of capacities? We will discuss different theories of intelligence to grasp the answer.