Essential Computer Hardware Components:- Using all its part together a computer converts data into information by performing various actions on the data. For example, a computer might perform a mathematical operations operation on two numbers then display the result.  Or the computer might perform a logical operation such as comparing two numbers then display the result. These operations are parts of a process called the information processing Cycle which is a set of steps the computer follows to receive data process the data according to instructions from a program display the resulting information to the users and store the results. Let’s discuss in detail essential computer hardware.

Essential Computer Hardware Components | Computer Hardware Parts

An essential computer hardware devices fall into one of four categories.

  • Processor.
  • Memory
  • Input and Output
  • Storage


The processor that transforms are a data into useful information is called perform this transmission the computer uses two components, processor & memory. The processor is like the brain of the computer it organizes and carries out instructions that come from either the user or the software.ina personal computer the processor usually consists of one or more specialized chips called microprocessor which is silver of silicon or other material echoed with many tiny electronica circuits, to process data or complete an instruction from a user or a program the computer passes electricity through the circuits. The microprocessor plugged into the computer’s motherboard. The motherboard is a rigid rectangular card containing the circuitry that connects the processor to the other hardware. A personal computer’s processor is usually a single chip or set of chips contained in a circuit some powerful computers the processor consists of many chips and the circuit boards on in which they are mounted.


It is the second essential computer hardware. In a computer memory is one or more sets of chips that store data and or program instruction either temporarily or permanently. Memory is a critical processing component in a computer. Personal computers use several different types of memory but the two most important are called RAM AND ROM.


The most common type of memory is called random access memory (RAM ). Ram is like an electronic scripted pad inside the computer.RAM holds data and program instructions while the CPU works with them. When a program is launched it is loaded into and run from memory as the program need data it is loaded into memory for fast access. As new data is entered into the computer it is also stored in memory but only temporarily, data is both written to and read from this memory.


Unlike RAM read-only memory permanently stores its data even when the computer is shut off. Rom is called nonvolatile memory because it never loses its content. Rom holds instructions that the computer needs to operate. Whenever the computer power is turned on it checks Rom for a direction that helps it start up and for information about its hardware devices.


A personal computer would be useless if you could not interact with it because the machine could not receive instructions or deliver the results of its work. Input devices accept data and instructions from the user or from another computer system. Output devices return processed data to the user or to another computer system. The most common input devices are the keyword which accepts letters number and commands from the user. Another important type of input device is the mouse which lets you select options from one screen menus. We use a mouse by moving it across a flat surface and pressing its buttons. Example of input devices keyboard, scanner, mouse, trackball, touchpad, joystick, and microphone. The function of an output device is to present processed data to the user. Example, Monitor, printer, speaker, and scanner.


A computer can function with only processing memory input and output devices. To be really useful however a computer also needs a place to keep Program file and related data when they are not in use. The purpose of storage devices is to hold data permanently even when the computer is turned off. There are two main types of computer storage, magnetic and optical.


There are many types of computer storage but the most common is the magnetic storage. a disk is a round flat object that spins around its center. Read/write heads which work in much the same way as the head of a tape recorder and VCR are used to read data from the disk or write data onto the disk. The device that holds a disk is called disk drive. Some disks are built into the drive and are not meant to be removed other kinds of drives enable you to remove and replace disks.


The CD Rom drive is the most common type of optical storage device. Compact disk CD’s are a type of optical storage identical to audio CDs. The type used in computers is called compact disk read only memory. A CD-R drive can write data to and read data from a compact disk, to record data with a CD-R drive you must use a special CD-R disk. An increasingly popular data storage technology is the digital video disk (DVD). DVD drives are now standard equipment on many new personal computers.