DATA PROCESSING
COMPUTER

DATA PROCESSING | IMPORTANT STAGES IN THE PROCESSING CYCLE


What is Data Processing? Two components handle processing in a computer: the central processing unit, or CPU, and the memory. Both are located on the computer’s motherboard. let’s discuss in detail Data Processing in a computer.

DATA PROCESSING IN COMPUTERS

The Data Processing in computer are as under;-

The CPU

The CPU is that the “brain” of the pc, the place wherever knowledge is manipulated. In giant laptop systems, like supercomputers and mainframes, processing tasks could also be handled by multiple process chips. Some powerful laptop systems use tons of or perhaps thousands of separate process units within the average PC, the complete CPU could be a single unit, referred to as a chip. Not withstanding its construction, each CPU has a minimum of two basic parts: the management unit and therefore the arithmetic logic unit.

THE CONTROL UNIT

All the computer’s resources are managed by the control unit. Think about the control unit as a traffic light directional the flow of information through the CPU, yet on and from alternative devices. The control unit is that the logical hub of the pc.

The CPU’s directions for completing commands are designed into the control unit. The directions, or instruction set, list all the operations that the CPU will perform. Every instruction’ within the instruction set is expressed in microcode—a series of basic directions that tell the CPU the way to execute additional advanced operations.

THE ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT

As all laptop knowledge is kept as numbers, a lot of the process that takes place involves comparison numbers or completing mathematical operations. Additionally, to establishing ordered sequences and ever-changing those sequences, the pc will perform two styles of operations: arithmetic operations and logical operations. Arithmetic operations embody addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Logical operations embody comparisons, like determinant whether or not one variety is up to, bigger than, or but another variety. Also, each logic operation has an opposite. Many directions allotted by the control unit involve merely moving knowledge from one place to another from memory to storage, from memory to the printer, so forth. Once the control unit encounters an instruction that involves arithmetic or logic, however, it passes that instruction to the second element of the CPU, the arithmetic logic unit, or ALU. The ALU really performs the arithmetic and logical operations delineated earlier.

The ALU includes a gaggle of registers high-speed memory locations designed directly into the CPU that are accustomed hold the information presently being processed. You will think about the register as a memory. The ALU can use the register to carry the information presently getting used for a calculation. As an example, the control unit would possibly load two numbers from memory into the registers within the ALU. Then it tells the ALU to divide the two numbers an arithmetic operation or to envision whether or not the numbers are equal a logical operation. The solution to the current calculation is kept in another register before being sent out of the CPU.

MACHINE CYCLES

Each time the CPU executes an instruction, it takes a series of steps, and the finished series of steps is named a machine Cycle. A machine cycle itself is often softened into two smaller cycles: the instruction cycle and therefore the execution cycle. At the start of the machine cycle that is, throughout the instruction cycle, the CPU takes two steps:

  1. Fetching. Before the CPU will execute AN instruction, the management unit should retrieve (or fetch) a command or knowledge from the computer’s memory.
  2. Decoding. Before a command is often dead, the management unit should break down (or decode) the command into directions that correspond to those within the CPU’s instruction.

At this time, the CPU is prepared to start the execution cycle:

  1. Executing. once the command is dead, the CPU carries out the directions so as by changing them into code.
  2. Storing. The CPU could also be needed to store the results of an instruction in memory but this condition isn’t invariably required.

Although the method is advanced, the pc will accomplish it at an out of this world speed, translating several directions each second. In fact, CPU performance is commonly measured in several directions per second (MIPS).

Although the method is advanced, the pc will accomplish it at an out of this world speed, translating several directions each second. In fact, CPU performance is commonly measured in several directions per second (MIPS). Newer CPUs are often measured in billions of directions per second {BIPS).

Even though most microprocessors execute directions speedily, newer ones will perform even quicker by employing a method referred to as pipelining or pipeline processing. In pipelining, the management unit begins a brand new machine cycle that’s, it begins death penalty a brand new instruction—before the present cycle is completed. Executions are carrying out in stages: once the primary instruction completes the “fetching” stage, it shifts to the “decode” stage and a variety new instruction is fetched. It’s helpful to think about a pipeline as a mechanical system every instruction is shifting into many components.