Communication Definition: Nowadays and since ancient times communication is playing a vital role important because due to the importance of communication, it is possible to transmit the experiences from one generation to another so that they can be assimilated and continued. Without this possibility (of communications), the advance would not have been possible in any sense.
Individual human development is not possible if we remain mentally, socially or physically isolated, it is also essential to achieve the need for coordination of efforts in order to achieve the objectives pursued by an organization.
Therefore there is another point that is important within this area as it is the scope of Social Interaction includes activities linked to different contexts, ranging from the communities in which we have a permanent presence, to municipalities and grassroots organizations that are supported in the management of programs and integral community projects of self-sustainable development. A simple example is that support for communities, inter-institutional cooperation, and intercultural communication. Communication definition may be ascertained from the following points.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNICATION
The characteristics of communication are stated as under;
- In it you must use words and gestures appropriate to what we want to convey.
- Positive feelings are expressed (love, respect, sincerity, sympathy, consideration, estimation, etc).
- In communication, we respond with positive feelings and attitudes, in a serene and adult way, even when the messages come loaded with negative feelings and attitudes.
- Clear, concise and convincing ideas are issued; with positive feelings; in a timely manner and without interference from physical noise psychological prejudices.
OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION
Aristotle defined the study of (communication) rhetoric as the search for “all the means of persuasion that we have within our reach”. He analyzed the possibilities of the other purposes that a speaker can have; However, he made it very clear that the main goal of communication is persuasion, that is, the speaker’s attempt to lead others to the same point of view. The purposes of the communication should be:
- Not logically inconsistent or logically unconscious with itself.
- Focused on behavior; that is, expressed in terms of human behavior.
- Specific enough to allow us to relate it to real communicative behavior.
- Compatible with the ways in which people communicate.
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION
The basic elements that intervene in the communication are:
- The sender
- The Message
- The Channel
- The Receptor
It is the source of the information; it is who is going to externalize the communication, so the following details should be taken into account:
- It will present informative content as close to reality. Separating the real facts from the subjective opinions.
- Skill, cultural resources, school, etc., and quality of the person who acts as a receiver.
- The message will be transmitted with the greatest accuracy, clarity, and simplicity so that the reaction produced by its impact is decisive and liquidates any possible resistance to change or any other mechanism of defense of the recipient.
Once the first element of communication is established, it is convenient to define precisely what has to be said; to know it thoroughly, so completely that it is possible to transmit the same idea with different words. Six are the requirements that a message must contain, in order to avoid any possible deformation of what is really wanted to be transmitted:
- Credibility, that is, the communication established by the message presented to the receiver, is real and true so that it easily discovers the objective of our work and eliminates PRE-conceived attitudes that would distort the information.
- The purpose of our communication will be to provide useful information that serves who is addressed.
- In order for the receiver to understand the content of the message, it will be necessary to transmit it with simplicity and clarity.
- Continuity and consistency. For the message to be captured, it is often necessary to use the repetition of concepts, so that based on the continuity and consistency we can penetrate the mind of the receiver to overcome the possible resistance that it establishes.
- Adaptation in the middle. In the process to establish communication with the recipients in an organization, it will be necessary to use and accept officially established channels, even when these are deficient or obsolete.
- Provision of the auditorium. The following principle is valid: communication is most effective when the effort made by the receiver to capture is less. In such a way, an accessible communication disposes the audience to capture the news, a dark way, which implies great efforts on the part of the receiver, predisposes it negatively to the messages.
The communication means the vehicle or medium that transports the messages: memoranda, letters, telephone, radio, newspapers, films, magazines, conferences, meetings, etc.
The communication channels are identified in many aspects with the lines of authority and responsibility. This is because, in traditional organizations, the flow of authority descends from the highest hierarchy to the operational staff.
In every organization there is a greater or lesser degree of delegation of authority, which implies a greater complexity in its hierarchical structure ; However, such circumstances can be controlled by good administrative planning, but when this does not exist, and communication levels and channels are reproduced anarchically, it will be noticed that the latter, both in its ascending and descending sense, becomes slower, and loses agility and effectiveness.
Currently, the administration has been more careful not only to get information to the employee (downlink communication), but to send it out to other institutions ; so, to carry out any type of communication, it must occupy the specific means that the organization has for this function : communication channels, subject to the forms of interpersonal relationship that occur there; this is how those that can be channels are structured:
- Informal, which arise spontaneously in the organization. They are not planned and follow the currents of sympathy and rapprochement between the members of the organization. They pass from one person to another and are deformed in each transmission. They are constituted by rumors, gossip, etc.
- Formal, which should be planned and structured properly. It can be said that the more formal communication, the less informal it will be. These channels can be:
Man occupies these channels for various functions :
- Receive and transmit messages, retain information.
- Obtain correct conclusions based on true information.
- Rebuild the past and anticipate certain events.
- Influence and direct other people and certain external events.
By its address, the communication channels are divided into:
- Descending vertical channels.
- Up Vertical channels.
- Horizontal or coordination channels.
Descending vertical channels
They are based on the authority that has who sends to others, on what they should or should not do; they always come from a boss and are directed to one or several subordinates. Examples: orders, circulars, bulletins, etc.
Up vertical channels
They are based on the double urgency that every human feels to express themselves, and the need for the boss to obtain information about the interests and work of the employee. Examples: Reports, complaints, suggestions, etc. Frequently, great attention is paid to downstream channels and bottom-ups are neglected.
Horizontal or coordination channels
They are based on the need to transfer and exchange within a hierarchical level, information without deformation, ideas, points of view, knowledge, experiences, etc. It is evident that these three types of communication complement each other.
It is the person who receives and captures the information transmitted; it must be taken into account, therefore, that there is a tendency in all reception to develop defense mechanisms; especially when the information carries out some modification of the status quo in which one lives and acts; hence, everything that means change may run the risk of being rejected, consciously or unconsciously occurring barriers that hinder the true information, or otherwise, modify it so that this is acceptable. In such a situation, we can talk about the receiver in terms of his communication skills. If he does not have the ability to listen, read and think, he will not be able to receive and understand the messages that the source has transmitted. The culture and situation in the recipient’s social system, its status, and its behavior affect the reception and interpretation of messages.
Very important is the reaction or response (or lack thereof) of the recipient to communication. If it is not affected in the planned since there may be barriers or distortions, which we will deal with in the next point. To determine whether or not the answer is the desired one, it is essential to observe the behavior of the receiver. It requires the sender to obtain certain “feedback “.
For the reason that communication is a great need for society, you should not apply inappropriate techniques to execute it; information must be issued and received, that is why individuals should know the rules of courtesy, such as the typical norm of listening to the speaker; we must be tolerant with our neighbor and above all try to take it very well with people, no matter how much the words received from the receiver are charged.
The information that corresponds to us as issuers, must be precise, clear, explanatory and direct, if we abide by all communication guidelines, this will be effective, otherwise, the communication between people will be lost.