CLASSIFICATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS | INFORMATION SYSTEMS
What is Classification of Information Systems? Several other categories of information provide more unique or broad classifications. That’s because these information systems can support either operations or management applications. Classification of information systems are discussed as under;
CLASSIFICATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
As we know that expert systems can provide expert advice for operational chores like equipment diagnostics or for managerial decisions such as loan portfolio management. Another example is end user computing systems, which provide ‘direct hands-on support of end users for either or managerial applications. Finally, information systems which focus on operational and managerial applications in support of based business functions such as accounting or marketing are known as business information systems.
The frontiers of information systems are being affected by developments in artificial intelligence (Al). Artificial intelligence is an area of computer science whose long-range goal is to develop computers that can think, as well as see, hear, yolk, bulk, and feel. For example, Al projects involve developing natural computer interfaces, advanced industrial robots, and intelligent computer software. A major thrust is the development of computer functions normally associated with human intelligence such as reasoning, learning, and problem solving. One of the most practical applications of Al is the development of expert systems (ES). An expert system is a knowledge-based information system; that is, it uses its knowledge about a specific area to act as an expert consultant to users. The mechanisms of an expert system are a knowledge base and software modules that execute inferences on the knowledge and offer answers to a user’s questions. Expert systems are being used in many different fields, including medicine, engineering, the physical sciences, and business. For example, expert systems now facilitate diagnose illnesses, search for minerals scrutinize compounds, suggest repairs, and do financial planning. Expert systems can support either operations or management activities.
END USER COMPUTING SYSTEMS
End user computing systems are computer-based information systems that directly support both the operational and managerial applications of end users. You should think of end user computing primarily us the direct, hands-on use of computers by end users, instead of the indirect use provided by the hardware, software, and professional resources of an organization information services department. In end user computing systems end users typically use microcomputer workstations and a variety of software packages and databases for personal productivity, information renewal, decision support, and applications development. For example, users may do word processing, send electronic mail retrieve information from a database manipulate an analytical model or develop a new business application.
STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
The strategic role of information systems involves using information technology to develop products, services, and capabilities that give a company strategic advantages over the competitive forces it faces in the global marketplace. This creates strategic information systems, information systems that support or shape the competitive position and strategies of an enterprise. So a strategic information system can be any type of information system (TPS, MIS, DSS, etc.) that helps an organization get a competitive advantage, diminish a competitive disadvantage, or meet other strategic enterprise objectives. For example, Online package tracking systems helped federal express get market control customer cash management account systems helped Merrill Lynch size market leadership, and portable computer-based applications helped Navistar considerably increase their market share.
BUSINESS INFORMATION SYSTEMS
As a upcoming managerial end user, it is significant for you to comprehend that information systems directly support both operations and management activities in the business functions of accounting, finance, human resource management, marketing, and operations management. Such business information systems are needed by all business functions. For examples marketing managers need information about sales performance and trends provided by marketing information systems. Financial managers need information concerning financing costs and investment returns provided by financial information systems. Production managers need information analyzing resource requirements and worker productivity provided by a variety of manufacturing information systems. Personnel managers need the information concerning employee compensation and professional development provided by human resource information systems. Thus, business information systems provide managers with a variety of information products to support their decision-making responsibilities in each of the functional areas of business.
INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEMS
It is also significant to understand that information systems in the actual world are, typically, integrated combinations of several types of information systems. We have just mentioned, that’s because conceptual classifications or information systems are designed to emphatic the many different roles of information systems. Apply these roles are integrated into complex or cross-functional information systems that offer a variety of functions. Thus most information systems are designed to manufacture information and support decision making or a range of levels of management and business functions, as well as do record-keeping and transaction processing chores.