What is mean by Law of Perceptual Organization? We know that the study Of perception is directed at finding we take stimuli and outgrowth form conscious of sensation. Now lets us discuss Law of Perceptual Organization are as follow;-
LAWS OF PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION
We tend to organize stimuli in the simplest possible way. We don’t see the pattern as a complicated figure. People tend to group features of a stimulus in a way that provides the simplest interpretation of the world (Hatfield, Epstein, 1985, Biederman, 1987).
We tend to group together elements that appear similar. Similar elements are perceived to be a part of a group. Similarity also affects the perception of sound.
We tend to see the objects in groups depending on how they are spaced. The closer objects are more likely to be perceived as belonging together. We see not separate six lines, but 3 sets of 2 lines. Proximity or contiguity means that events that occur close together in space or in time are perceived as belonging together as part of the same figure. Proximity operates on more than just visual stimuli, e.g. sounds that occur together in speech are perceived as going together to form words or phrases. In written language, there are physical spaces between words on the printed page; with spoken language, there are very brief pauses between words.
The principle of continuity (good continuation) suggests that we tend to see things as ending up consistent with the way they started off. We tend to perceive a series of stimuli smooth or continuous. Sensations that appear to create a continuous form are perceived as belonging together. The continuity principle in unit formation. The principle may account for some of the ways we organize our perceptions of people. We are shocked when an outstanding student of school suddenly performs poor at college. We are shocked because we want to perceive him as a brilliant student like always.
Sets of objects that are moving in the same direction at the same speed perceived together. Thus a flock of birds, although separated in space, will be perceived as a group. Common fate is like continuity but for moving stimuli.
It is the tendency to fill in missing parts of a figure and see the figure as complete. The principle of closure states that When individuals see a disconnected or incomplete figure, they fill in the spaces and see it as a complete figure. Closure is a good example that perception is an active process. A phenomenon that many psychologists believe is a special case of closure in our perception of subjective contours, in which arrangements of lines and patterns enable us to see figures that are not actually there. There is no accepted explanation for subjective contours, (Bradly and Dumais, 1975); Kanizsa, 1976; Rock, 1986)/ but it does seem they provide examples of our perceptual processes filling in gaps in our Perceptual world in order to provide us with sensible information.
Higher levels of organization are achieved when the shapes of figures are perceived relative to reference frames established by the spatial and temporal context. The perceptual effects of reference frames are also demonstrated. If we see one of the upper figures by itself it would look like a diamond, whereas one of the lower ones would look like a square. When we see these figures as part of diagonal rows, the shapes reverse, because the orientation of each figure is seen in relation to the reference frame established by the whole row.
Gestalt showed that the visual organization is more complex. Organizational process in shape perception is sensitive to something the gestalt called figural goodness, this concept includes perceived simplicity, symmetry, and regularity. Experiments have shown that “good” figures are easily and accurately perceived, remembered and described than “bad” ones. In Short, with organizational processes humans can see a unified world from the successive partial and unorganized patterns of stimulation. Gestalt principles of perceptual organization describe how people organize the world into identifiable shapes and patterns. But these patterns keep changing from moment to moment. We interpret the patterns as being stable because of perceptual constancy.
Perceptual constancy means the perception of an object as constant in size, shape and colour and other properties despite changes in their retinal image. Without this aspect of perception, the world would be an “Alice in Wonderland” kind of place, in which objects continuously change their properties. Perceptual constancy means the stable patterns of perceiving the world, which help us organize and interpret the stimulus input, we get from our senses. It is because of this stability that we can recognize a familiar object regardless of how far away it is, the angle from which we view it, or the nature of the light reflected from it. We can recognize our notebook whether we view it from a distance or close up, straight on or from an angle, in a dimly or brightly lit room or in the blue, red or white light. If it were not perceptual constancies, every sensation might be perceived as a new experience, and little would appear familiar. Retinal images are constantly changing, even though the stimuli that fall on the retinas of our eyes change as we move closer or farther away from objects or look at objects from different orientations and in light and dark settings, our perception of them remains stable. Perceptual constancy is the recognition that objects are constant and unchanging even though sensory input about them is changing.
We experience three types of perceptual constancy, size, shape and brightness.
Size Constancy When the perceived size of objects stays more or less constant, however, changes may occur in the size of the retinal image is called size constancy. The computational aspect of perception suggests that as objects move closer or farther away, the brain perceives the change in distance and automatically adjusts perception. As an object moves closer, its retinal image increases but the perceived distance at the same rate, so the perceived size remains constant.
Shape Constancy The principle behind constancy is closely connected that of constancy. like constancy, a lot of the power to gauge to constancy depends on automatic procedure mechanism within the nervous system, however, the expectations regarding the form of objects conjointly play a role. constancy is that the recognition that associate object retains constant form, despite the fact that its orientation to the United States of America changes.
Brightness Constancy It means, in spite of however the number of sunshine placing an object change, the object’s perceived brightness remains comparatively constant. Brightness of an object is perceived in reference to its background. Whatever could also be things, we have a tendency to area unit able to resolve the discrepancy between a retinal image of an object and its actual size, form and brightness. it’s the expertise that matters. Binocular and monocular distance cues also provide information about an object’s size. Many visual illusions are influenced by our perception of size constancy.