What is Kidney problem? As we know that kidney plays a vital role in excretion process. Unusual situations may arise in the function of a kidney by factors originating within kidney or outside. These cause serious kidney diseases. let discuss in detail various kidney problem factors are as under;
KIDNEY STONES | KIDNEY PROBLEM
Stony materials are found in the kidney and these cat-like urinary obstructions and are generally complicated by infections. These stones have specified chemical nature. These are formed in metabolic diseases hypocalcaemia i.e., high level of circulating calcium in blood because of other diseases. Hyperoxaluria i.e. Higher blood level of oxalates is another contributing factor in the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Oxalates are present in green vegetables and tomatoes. Therefore may be the source of hyperoxaluria. The incidence of calcium oxalate types is 70% of all the kidney stones. The incidence of other types of stones of calcium phosphate and of uric acid is 15% and 10% respectively. These salts are precipitated out during urine formation and accumulate later to form a stone.
Lithotripsy: The kidney stones have been removed by kidney surgery. Presently lithotripsy is used for non-surgical removal of kidney stone. It is the technique used to break up stones that are formed in the kidneys ureter or gallbladder. There are several ways to do it, although the most common is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. High concentrations of X-ray or ultrasound are directed from a machine outside the body to the stone inside. The shock waves break the stone into tiny pieces or into the sand, which is passed out of the body in urine.
Various factors of pathological and chemical nature may progressively destroy the nephron, particularly its glomerular part. This results in an increase of the plasma level of urea and other nitrogenous wastes. The rise in urea causes complications of increase in blood pressure and anaemia etc.
Dialysis: In chronic renal failure, the function of the kidney is lost completely and now it can never remove nitrogenous waste. To remove nitrogenous wastes particularly the urea, the blood of the patient is treated through dialysis. It cleans the blood either by passing it through an artificial kidney or by filtering it within the abdomen. The wastes and excess water are removed during the treatment as being done by the healthy kidneys.
There are two types of dialysis:
- peritoneal dialysis.
Haemodialysis. means ‘cleaning the blood’, In this procedure, blood is circulated through a machine which contains a dialyzer, called an artificial kidney. Dialyzer has two spaces separated by a thin membrane. Blood passes from one side of the membrane and dialysis fluid on the other. The wastes and excess water pass from the blood through the membrane into the dialysis fluid.
2.Peritoneal dialysis.‘ Peritoneal dialysis work on the same principle except that abdomen has a peritoneal cavity, lined by a thin epithelium called peritoneum. The peritoneal cavity is filled with dialysis fluid that enters the body through a catheter (a thin flexible tube that is inserted into a part of the body to inject or drain away fluid, or to keep ‘a passage open) Excess water and wastes pass through the peritoneum into the dialysis fluid. This process is repeated several times in a day.
Dialyzer: Dialyzer is a kidney machine that works on the same principles as in the kidney for the removal of nitrogenous wastes and excess water from the blood. It is used after kidney failure and dialysis is done again and again until a matching donor’s kidney is transplanted.
Kidney Transplant: Dialysis may be used as a temporary measure. In high degree renal failure also called as uremia or end-stage renal disease, the dialysis is done endlessly thus the surgical transplantation of a matching donor kidney is only the option left as the permanent treatment.